Ido-English Dictionary : I

-i-: (suffix) indicating land, region, domain of: rej-i-o: kingdom; duk-i-o: duchy.

-i: noun plural ending.

iamb-o: iambic, iambus. — DEFIRS

ibe: (adv.) there; ad-ibe: (with motion) thence; tra ibe: through there, that way; hike ed ibe: here and there; ibe fore: there at a distance; ibe infre: down there. Ex.: Ibe esas ube me lojas. Haltez ibe. — L

ibis-o: (orni.) ibis (subfamily: Ibidinæ). — DEFIRS

ic-a: see ca.

-id-: (suffix) indicating human descendant, as Izrael-id-o.

idant-o: (biol.) germ cell: according to the theories of August Weismann, the particle which transmits by atavism la particularities of the structure of a living entity.

ide-o: idea; -ala: ideal; -alo: an ideal; -al-ismo: idealism; -al-igar: to idealize; -al-ist-a, -o: idealistic (person). — DEFIRS

ident-a: identical, the (self-) same; -eso: identity, sameness; -igar: to identify, to make identical (N.B. not used for persons: ri-konocar ulu kom ulu). Ex.: Me prestis a B. la sama libro kam ad A. (t.e. libro tote identa, un libro). La du propozicioni esas identa l'una a l'altra. — DEFIRS

identifik-ar: (tr.) to identify, ascertain the identity of. — DEFIRS

ideografi-o: ideography; -ajo: idiom-graph, idiogram. — DEFIRS

ideogram-o*: ideogram: a picture or symbol in certain writing systems.

ideologi-o: ideology. — DEFIRS

idili-o: (also fig.) idyl; -ala, -atra: idyllic. — DEFIRS

idioblast-o: (bot.) idioblast.

idiolekt-o*: idiolect: manner of speaking of an individual at a particular period in the person's life.

idiom-o: idiom, language of a people, tribe, etc. (cf. idiotismo); -ala: idiomatic, vernacular, relative to a particular language; provincala (o lokala, o rurala) idiomo: patois (cf. dialekto, jargono, slango); la Franca idiomo: the French language. Def.: La linguo propra di ula naciono o regiono. — DEFIRS

idioplasm-o: (biol.) idioplasm.

idiot-a: idiotic, devoid of understanding; -(ul)o: idiot, natural fool (for scientific discussion of meaning, cf. VI-243); -ajo: an idiotic act. — DEFIRS

idiotism-o: idiotism, idiom, an expression peculiar to itself in grammatical construction; an expression the meaning of which as a whole cannot be derived from the conjoined meanings of its elements (cf. idiomo); -ala: idiomatic, relating to the grammatical construction of a sentence (cf. idiom-ala). Dei.: Frazo ne komprenebla per logikal analizo; VI-192. Ex.: "How do you do" esas Angla idiotismo. — DEFIRS

idol-o: (also fig.) idol; -isto: idolater; -igar: to idolize; -kulto, -ismo: idolatry; -ista, -kult-ala: idolatrous. — DEFIRS

-ier-: (suffix) (of persons) characterized by (an attribute, object, or peculiarity): rent-iero: annuity-, stock-holder; (of things) holder, stand for: kandel-iero: candlestick; (of plants) that which bears or produces: pom-iero: apple tree, roz-iero: rose bush.

-if-: (suffix) to generate, produce, secrete; sang-ifar: to bleed; sudor-ifar: to perspire.

ig-ar: (tr.) to make, cause, render (= suffix -ig- used as an independent verb). Ex.: Igar B. dicar ulo ad A. Igar ulu savar ulo = savigar ulo da ulu. Igar ulu facar ulo = facigar ulo da ulu. Lu igis sua flechi (esar) venenoza. La rejo igis la generalo arestar la policestro.

iglu-o: (2001) igloo. — DEFIRS

ignor-ar: (tr.) to ignore, to refuse to notice; disregard wilfully; to overlook (ulu, ulo) intentionally. Def.: Ne volar savar; simular nesavar; VI-165. Ex.: Me savas ke altra faktori existas en la problemo, ma me ignoras li. Ignorar la prczenteso di ulu. — DEFIRS

iguan-o: (zool.) iguana (genus: Iguana). — DEFIRS

-ik-: (suffix) (person) sick from, suffering from: artrit-ik-o: one suffering from arthritis.

ikneumon-o: (ent.) ichneumon fly. — EFIS

ikon-o: (rel.) icon. — EFIRS

ikonogen-o: (photog.) eikonogen. — DE

ikonografi-o: iconography. — DEFIRS

ikonoklast-o: iconoclast, image breaker; (fig.) one who attacks cherished beliefs as shams; a determined enemy of image worship. — DEFIRS

ikonometr-o: (photog.) iconometer. — DEFIS

ikosaedr-o: (geom.) icosahedron. — DEFIS

ikter-o: (med.) icterus: jaundice; -ika, -iko: (person) suffering from j. — DEFIS

iktiokol-o: ichthyocol(la), fish-glue, isinglass, a glue prepared from the sounds of fish. — DEFI

iktiosaur-o: (paleon.) ichthyosaur. — DEFIRS

iktus-o: (med.) ictus: sudden event, such as stroke, seizure, collapse, faint.

«iktus»: (poet.) ictus: when a strong stress occurs; (music) the moment a beat occurs.

-il-: (suffix) instrument, tool for, means of performing an action: bros-il-o: brush; paf-il-o: shooting instrument.

il: (abbr. of ilu; accus. ilun) he; -i: they (masc.); ilua: his; ilia: their (masc.). Note: In order to show gender, il is sometimes prefixed to demonstrative and interrogative pronouns: ilca, ilta, ilqua, ilci, ilti, ilqui. Ex.: il veis kun ilua kuzi. Ili venis kun ilia kuzi. Pro quo vu prenas ilua libri? Lektez la vui e lasez la ilui (plu.) — FS

ileon-o: (anat.) ileum. — EFIS

ilex-o: holly; -iero: h. tree (Ilex aquifolium). — L

iliak-o: hip-bone, pelvic-bone, coxa; -a, -ala: iliac(al). — EFIS

ilion-o*: (anat.) ilium. — EFISL

iliterat-a, -o: illiterate, unlettered (person). Def.: Qua savas nek lektar, nek skribar; VI-486. — EFIS

ilumin-ar: (tr.) to illuminate, decorate with festal lights or bonfires (cf. lumizar); (fig.) to enlighten the mind of (ulu); pregar Deo -ar vu: to pray to God to illuminate your mind; -(ad)o: illumination (as at a festival); -ismo: the principles of the illuminati; la -ati: the illuminati. — DEFIRS

ilustr-ar: (tr.) to illustrate, to provide or adorn (as a book with pictures); (cf. enluminar, klarigar, explikar); -uro: illustration (in a book, paper). — DEFIRS

iluzion-ar: (intr.) (cf. trompar), to be laboring under an illusion, delusion; -oza: full of delusions; -a: illusory (truly so); -ig-anta, -iva: delusive, illusive: which makes a delusion; -igar: to delude, deceive (ulu,su, pri ulo); bastono en aquo aspektas quale ruptita; co esas iluziono: a stick in water looks as if it were broken: it is an illusion. Def.: (iluziono) Eroro di la sensi o di la mento, qua igas konfundar la versimilajo por la realajo. — DEFIRS

-im-: (suffix) fraction of. Ex.: tri-im-a: a third (part); quar-im-o: a quarter.

imagin-ar: (tr.) to imagine, to form a notion, a mental image; -ajo: that which one imagines, fancy, conceit; -iva, -ema: imaginative. Ex.: On ne povas imaginar ulo plu extraordinara. Il havas vivaca imaginado. Mento imaginema. V. Exp.: vid. fantaziar. — EFIS

imaginar-a: (math.) imaginary, impossible (quantity or expression). — DEFIRS

imaj-o: image, a visible representation of something; statue, effigy, picture, idol, etc.; a picture produced by reflection, refraction, etc.; a natural resemblance, likeness; a mental or printed picture. Ex.: La ikonoklasti kombatis kontre la kulto di imaji. Vidar sua imajo en l’aquo. Deo kreis la homo segun sua imajo (E. likeness); Esas bela imaji (E. pictures) en ca libro. — EFIS

iman-ar: (intr., philos.) to be immanent, to indwell; -anta: immanent, inherent. Ant.: (iman-anta) trancendanta. — DEFIS

imbast-ar: (tr., of tailors, seamstresses) to baste, to run or tack together (the different parts of a garment, cloth). Def.: Sutar per longa steburi e (ordinare) blanka filo, por pose probar; IV-167. — EFI

imbecil-a: imbecile, weak-minded. (For discussion of scientific meaning of this and related word, cf. VI-243. — DEFIS

imbib-ar: (tr.) to imbue, to permeate, soak in, drench (speaking of liquids); La pluvo imbibas la tero: the rain has soaked the ground; -ar sponjo per aquo: to soak a sponge (with water); (fig.) –ar la mento per opinioni eroroza: to imbue the mind with erroneous opinions. — DEFIS

imbrik-ar: (tr.) to imbricate, to overlap (ulo, per ulo); -o, -uro: imbricating, overlapping (as scales, tiles, shingles). — EFIS

imens-a: immense, immeasureable, vast. — E

imers-ar: (tr.) to immerge, immerse, to dip, plunge (ulo) into (a liquid); -o-quanto: (nav.) (ship’s) draught. V. exp.: Submersar esas plunjigar komplete en (sub) l’aquo; diferas do de imersar, qua esas plunjigar nur parte; on imersas omna navi kande on lansas oli, ma nur poka e specala navi esas submersebla; altri (salvo-bateli) esas kontree nesubmersebla; IV-231. — DEFIS

imit-ar: (tr.) to imitate, endeavor to copy or resemble (ulu, ulo); -(ad)o, -uro: imitating, imitation; -ajo: the model or object which is imitated; -achar: to ape, mimic. Ex.: Imitar la signaturo, la manieri, la agi di ulu. Juveli imitita (E. imitation jewels) (cf. kontrafaktar). — DEFIRS

imobl-o, -i: (jur.) immovables, realty, real estate, chattels real, (permanent) fixtures. Def. : Nemovebla havaji (domi, agri, e.c.); II-75. — DEFIS

imol-ar: (tr.) to immolate, offer or kill as a sacrificial victim. Ex.: Agamemmon imolis sua filiino por la interesto generala di la Greki. — EFI

imortel-o: (plant, flower) immortelle, everlasting flower. — DEFR

imped-ar: (tr.) to impede, hinder, prevent; -o, -ivo: hindrance, hitch, impediment; (elec.) impedance; -ili, -ivi: impedimenta; sen- -a: unimpeded. Ex. Impedar ulu faca ulo. Impedar l'enemiko transirar la rivero. Impedo a l'exekuto du ula projecto. Impedivo en sua parolado. — EFIS

imper-ar: (tr.) to order, direct, enjoin, bid, command (N.B. not military); (fig.) to rule, have sway (cf. dominacar, guvernar, regnar); -ema: imperious; -vorto: word of command; Ex.: La patro imperis a sua filio departar. Devos imperas a me. V. exp.: vid. komandar. — EFIS

imperativ-o: (gram., philos.) imperative. — DEFIS

imperator-o: (Rom. hist.) imperator. Def. : Komandanto di antiqua Romana armeo; VI-213. — DEFIRS

imperfekt-o: (gram.) imperfect (tense). — DEFIS

imperi-o: empire, slate ruled by an emperor; -ala: imperial, relating to an e.; -al-ismo: imperialism; -al-ist-a, -o: imperialist(ic); -estro: emperor; -estr-ino: empress; -estr-ata: imperial, relating to an emperor. — DEFIRS

impertinent-a: impertinent, saucy, pert. V. exp.: Impertinenta esas nepolita o senrespekta. Insolenta esas, pluse, insulentema od ofensema. kun nuanco du superbeso; II-647. — DEFIS

impetu-ar: (intr.) (of persons) to be impetuous, quick to anger; (of horses) to escape from control by sudden, violent motion; -o: (of things) violence, fury; -em-eso: (of persons) impetuous, vehemence, boisterousness; -oza, -ema: impetuous, headlong, violent; la -o di la tempesto: the violence of the tempest; -em-eso di yuneso: impetuosness of youth; -oza deziri: vehement desires: iraco -oza: violent anger. — EFIS

implement-o: implement.

implicit-a: implicit, implied, tacitly comprised; to esas kontenata en la kontrato en maniero implicita: this is implied in the contract; libera volo esas la kondiciono implicita di responsiveso elikala: free-will is an implicit condition of moral reponsibility. — DEFIS

implik-ar: (tr., log.) to imply, to involve by inference; -o, -ajo: implication, inference; -ar kontre-dico: to imply or involve a contradiction: l'ideo di la homo implikas l'idei di inteligenteso ed arbitrio: the idea of a man implies ideas of intelligence and free will. — EFIRS

implora-ar: (tr.) to implore. V. exp. : Suplikar esas pregegar humile. Implorar adjuntas a suplikar l'ideo di emociganta moyeni, aparte (segun l'etimologio) di la ploro; II-646. — EFIS

imploz-ar: (intr.) to implode. — DEFIS

import-ar: (intr., pri) to have import, be of importance or consequence; to matter, signify, concern; -as: (impersonal) it is necessary; -o: import, importance, consequence; -anta: important; -anto: person of importance; -ajo: important thing or matter; to nemulte (o poke) importas a me: that is of little consequence; sen- -a: insignificant; importas irar: it is necessary to go; ne -as ube me esas: no matter where i am; l'importo di l'afero: the importance of an affair; -anta okaziono, persono: important occasion, person. — EFIRS

importac-ar: (tr., com.) to import (goods, computer files, etc.). Ant.: exportacar. — DEFIRS

impost-ar: (tr., ye) to tax (ulu, ulo); -(ad)o, -uro: taxation; impost, excise, duty; -o-kolekt-isto: t.-gatherer, -collector; -o person-ala: personal t., poll-tax; sal- -o: duty on salt. V. exp.: Taxar esas kalkular quanto de imposto pagenda; impostar esas igar taxito pagar ica sumo. Taxuro ed imposturo havas la sama senco. Ex.: La guvernerio taxas ula importacajo ye procento di 20 po cento, la dogan-kolektisto direte impostas ica 20 po cento. — DEFI

impotent-a: (med. and fig.) impotent. — DEFIRS

impoz-ar: (tr., ulo, ad ulu) to impose (ulo ad ulu); -ar su: to obtrude oneself; -esar to be incumbent (ad); -ar ulo a su: to impose something on one self; -anta, -iva: imposing, commanding, striking. Ex.: La vinkinto impozas severa kondicioni a la vinkiti. Impozar puniso, taco, respekto. Ceremonio impozanta. — DEFIS

impregn-ar: (tr., ye ulo) to impregnate, to fecundate; (fig.) to imbue. — DEFIS

imprek-ar: (intr.) to imprecate, to invoke evil on a person, to curse (kontre ulu); (cf. maledikar). EFIS

impres-ar: (tr., materially and morally) to impress, make an impression on (ulo), to move, affect (ulu); (cf. imprimar); -o, -uro: impression, imprint; -ata: (bone, male) impressed. — DEFIS

impresari-o: (theat.) impresario. — DEFIRS

impresion-o: (paint., lit.) an impressionist work; -ismo: impressionism; -isto: impressionist. Def.: Artala verko, qua tendencas expresar o reprezentar l'impresi recevita da l'artisto de la naturo o de la temo; VI-323. — DEFIR

imprim-ar: (tr., per) to print (a book, paper, etc.); -o, -uro: printing; (im)print: -ala: typographical; -erio: printing establ.; -eyo: printing office; -mashino: printing press; -proburo: proof (-sheet). — EFIS

improviz-ar: (tr.) to improvise, to compose, recite, sing, etc., extemporaneously; to extemporize; to make, do, or provide offhand; -e; -ata, -ita: extemporized, impromptu. — DEFIRS

impuls-ar: (tr., phys. and moral, ad) to give impetus to, to impel; -o: impetus, impulse; -anta, -iva: impelling, impulsive; kuglo -ita da pulvero: bullet impelled by powder; cedar a l'impulso dil volo di stranjero: to yield to the influence of a stranger's will. — DEFIRS

imput-ar: (tr., ulo, ad ulu) to impute, ascribe; (cf. akuzar, atributar); ne imputez mea taco ad ulo ecepte a manko di tempo: do not impute (attribute) my silence to anything except lack of time; me ne imputas mea desfortuno a vu: I do not impute my misfortunes to you; imputo kalumnioza: a caluminous imputation. — DEFIS

imun-a: immune (de); -igar: to render i; -ologio: (2001) immunology. — DEFIRS

-in-: (suffix) signifying female. Ex.: hom-in-o: female person; spoz-ino: wife.

inanicion-o: inanition. Del.: Febleso efektigita da manko de nutrivi. DEFIS

inat-a: innate, inborn, inbred; -a idei: innate ideas. — EFIS

inaugur-ar: (tr., all senses) to inaugurate. DEFIRS

incendi-ar: (tr.) to set fire to; to burn down (maliciously); -anto, -ero: incendiary (person); -o pre-medit-ita: arson.

incens-o: incense, frankincense; -iz-ilo: censer. — EFIS

incest-ar: (intr., kun) to commit incest. — DEFIRS

«inch»: inch: 2.54 cm.

incid-ar: (tr., phys. and gen., kontre) to impinge upon, fall upon or affect; -ala angulo: angle of incidence. Ex. Radio incidanta. L'incido di l'imposto. — EFIS

incident-a: incidental, causal; -o: incident, occurence; -a fraz-eto: a sub-ordinate, a parenthetic clause. — DEFIS

incit-ar: (tr., ulu ad ulo) to incite, to spur or urge on (ulu, ad ulo); (cf. instigar); -etar: to plague, pester; -o: incitement, incentive; (med.) stimulus. Ex.: Incitar la populo revoltar. Ica pensi incitis il a la venjo. — DEFIS

inciz-ar: (tr.) to incise, to cut in or into (cf. tranchar); -o, -uro: incision, gash, cut, slash; -iva: (also fig.) incisive; -ivo, -iva dento: incisor (tooth). — EFIS

-ind-: (suffix) signifying worthy to be. Ex.: estim-ind-a: estimable; kred-ind-a: credible.

indemn-o: indemnity, recompense; -izar: to indemnify, compensate, recoup. Def.: Kompensal pekunio donita pro domajo, e.c.; II-75 — DEFIS

indent-ar: (tr., print.) to indent (a line of text).

index-o: index, table of contents of a book; hand of a dial, etc.: (R.C. ch.) forbidden books; (of Bible) concordance; (cf. indik-fingro). — DEFIS

indic-o: indication, sign, token, mark, clue; -i tromp-anta: deceitful tokens; maligna parolado esas -o di mala kordio: an evil tongue is a sign of a bad heart; (math.) -o di radik-alo: index of a root; -o di refrakto: (opt.) index of refraction. Del. Fakto donanta la certeso o probableso di altra fakto. — DEFIS

indicion-o: indiction, cycle of 15 years. — DEFIS

indien-o: (fabric) cotton print, printed calico, chintz. — DFS

indiferent-a: indifferent, unconcerned, immaterial; (of persons) cold, unmindful, insensible. Ex.: Sive ni selektas ca voyo sive l'altra, to esas indiferent a me. Il esas indiferent a la laudo ed a la kritiko. Indiferenteso pri temi religiala. — DEFIS

indig-o: (dye and color) indigo; -iero, -o-planto: i.plant. — DEFIRS

indign-ar: (intr., pri, pro, kontre) to be indignant; -igar: to rouse the indignation of; -ig-anta: revolting, shoking; -o-klamo: out-cry, hue and cry. Ex.: Il indignas pro la deyusteso di homi. Desyusteso indignigas il. Eruptar pro indigno. — DEFIRS

indij-ar: (tr.) to be destitute and in need of (ulo); -o, -eso, -ego; indigence, poverty, penury, want, -anto: necessitous, person; pauper. Def.: Indijo esas la stando di homo indiganta la maxim necesa kozi. (fig.) Indijo di idei. (cf. karear). Ant. : (indijanta) richa. — EFIS

indijen-a: indigenous.

indik-ar: (tr., ad) to indicate, to show or point out, denote, designate (ulo ad ulu); -o, -ajo: indication (cf. indico; -fingro: index finger, forefinger.) — EFIS

indikativ-o: (gram.) indicative (mood). — DEFIS

indikator-o: (tech., chem.) indicator, gauge. — DEFIS

individu-o: individual, single person, animal or thing; -ala: individual; -eso: individuality, character peculiar to an individual; -al-eso: individuality, sum of characteristic traits; -ale: individually, in an i. or distinct manner, (cf. single); -al-igar: to individualize, render i.; -al-ismo: individualism; -isto: individualist.— DEFIRS

indolent-a: indolent, slothful, sluggish, lazy, nonchalant; -igar: to render i. Def.: Expresas nelaboremeso qua venas de la mental karaktero, de speco di moleso o deskurajo, II-19. Ant.: ag-iva, -ema; vivaca, impetuoza, diligenta. — DEFIS

indos-ar: (tr., com.) endorse, indorse. — DEFIS

indukt-ar: (tr., log.) to induce, to reach (a general conclusion) by inference from a number of individual cases; (phys.) to induce, to influence without direct contact; (phys., log.) induction, inference. — DEFIRS

induktor-o: (elec.) inductor. — DEFIRS

indulg-ar: (tr., ulo, pri ulo) to be indulgent to, make allowance for, forbear to inflict, spare; (cf. komplezar, absolvar); -anta, -ema: indulgent, lenient. Def.: Dispenar de puniso meritita; IV-562. Ant.: (esar) severa. —EFIS

induljenc-o: (eccl.) indulgence —DEFIS

indult-o: (eccl.) indult, dispensation granted by the Pope. — DEFIS

industri-o: industry: business employing much capital and labor. — DEFIRS

indut-ar: (tr.) to coat, to over with, (be)daub, smear, to paint (with one color); -o, -uro: coat(ing), a soft or liquid covering; -ar muro per gipsajo: to coat a wall with plaster; -ar per gudro: to tar (cf. gudr-izar); la puero indutis sua kayero per inko: the child blotted (bedaubed) his blank book with ink. —F

inerci-o: (2001) (phys.) inertia . — EFIRS

inert-a: (phys., mental) inert, sluggish; -eso: inertia; -a maso: an i. mass; -a mento: a dull mind. — EFIRS

infalibl-a: infallible, not liable to fail, deceive, or disappoint, unfailing, certain (cf. ne fali-iva, ne-eror-iva); lua ruino esas -a: his ruin is certain; remediilo -a: i remedy; -a evidentajo, suceso: i. evidence, success. (N.B. not to be used for «infallible»: not capabable of erring). — DEFIS

infam-a: infamous; -ig-anta: degrading. Ant.: honor-iz-anta, glori-oza. — DEFIS

infant-o: infant; young child up to seven years of age; -eto: baby; -acho: brat; -ala, -atra: infantile, childlike; -eso: infancy, childhood; -eskar: to become childish; -alajo: childish act: -eso du-esma: dotage (cf. radotar); -ocido: infanticide. — EFIS

«infante»: (in Spain, Portugal) infante: younger son of a prince or monarch. Def.: Rej-ido en Hispania e Portugal.

infantri-o: (milit.) infantry; -ano: infantryman. — DEFIRS

infarkt-o: (med.) infract. — DEFIS

infekt-ar: (tr., med. and fig.) to infect, taint; -iva: infectious. — DEFIRS

infer-ar: (tr., de, ek) to infer, deduce, conclude (ulo de). — EFIS

inferior-a: (sociol., econ.) inferior; lower in station or rank in life (ex.: -klaso di socio); lower in excellence and value; less good (ex.: komercaji di qualeso -a); subordonate, secondary; of less importance (ex. tribunalo -a; ofico -a). V. exp. vid. alta. Ant.: superiora.  — DEFIS

infern-o: (lit. and fig.) hell; -ala, -altra; infernal (regions, noise, etc.). — EFIS

infest-ar: (tr.) (2001) to infest. — EFIS

infiltr-ar: (tr., intr.) to infiltrate, percolate: to enter by penetrating the interstices of a substance; (fig.) to creep in, insinuate, penetrate. — DEFIS

infinit-a: (philos., math., and fig.) infinite. — DEFIS

infinitezim-a: infinitesimal, inmmeasurably small; -ala: infinitesimal, relative to an i. quantity; -a kalkulo: i. calculus, transcendental analysis.

infinitiv-o: (gram.) infinitive (mood). — DEFIS

infirm-a: infirm, lacking full use of a limb, having disablement of body; -ajo: infirmity; Def.: Qua ne povas uzar (libere, normale) irga membro od organo: V-95. V. exp. vid. kripla. — EFIS

infix-o: (gram.) infix. — DEFIRS

inflar: (tr.) to inflate, pull up or out, swell, bloat; (cf. bufar). Ex.: Inflar balono. Lua korpo esas inflita (E. swollen). (fig.) Esar inflita da superbeso. Stilo inflita (E. turgid style). — EFIS

inflac-ar*: (intr., fin.) to increase the volume of money and credit in relation to goods. — DEFIS

inflam-ar: (tr., med.) to inflame; (tech. sense) to set fire to (ulo); -ala, -altra: inflammatory; -ebla: inflammable, combustible; -o-punto: burning-point. Def.: Igar tre varmega; bruligar kun flamo; V-492. Ex.: Organo inflamesas, t.e. ol esas en la morbala stando nomizita inflameso. On havas instrumento por determinar l'inflamo-punto (temperaturo) di diversa liquidi. — DEFIS

inflex-ar:
(tr., gram.) to inflect; -o: (gram., geom.) inflection, inflexion (cl. flexiono, modulacar). — EFIS

infloresenc-o: (bot.) inflorescence. — EFIS

influ-ar: (tr., mental, phys., per, pro, pri) to influence, sway ,bias; -anta, -iva: influential (person, force, etc.). — DEFIRS

infleunz-o: (med.) influenza. — DEFIRS

influx-o: (biol.) influx: act of flowing in; -o nerv-ala: (physiol.) innervation. — DEFIS

inform-ar: (tr.) to inform, apprise, (ulu, pri ulo); -o: informing, news, information (given); -atiko: (2001) information science, informatics; -eso: information (received); -esar: to be informed (pri); serchar informi, inform-igar su: to make inquiries (cf. Inquestar). V. exp.: vid. sav-igar. — DEFIRS

infrastruktur-o*: infrastructure: the underlying foundation or basic framework of a system, organization, society.

infr-e: down (as opp. to supre); below, at the bottom (point in space; cl. sube); -a: lowermost, bottom; inferior: lower in space, degree of importance. quality (cf. suba, inferiora); -ajo: lowermost part, bottom part; -ega, maxim -a: lowermost, most inferior; ad-infre: (with motion) downmard; -e di: at the bottom or foot of; -a labio-barbo: tuft of hair on lower lip, an imperial; videz infre: look below. V. exp.: vid. alta. Ant.: supre. — L

infuz-ar: (tr.) to infuse: to steep (without boiling); (surg.) to introduce a liquid into veins; (fig.) to instil, inculcate (principles, etc.). — DEFIS

infuzori-o, -i: (nat. hist., zool.) infusoria. — DEFIRS

ingest-ar: (tr., physiol.) to ingest. — DEFI

inglob-ar: (tr., chiefly medic., pharm.) to blend together, put together (in spherical form). Def.: Ne simple unionar, ma mixar en un sola substanco (globo, quale indikas l'etimologio); anke inkluzar ula substanco (farmaciala) en altra (di altra naturo e saporo), qua envelopas e celas olu; VI-244 — FIS

ingran-ar: (tr., intr., mechan.) to put in (or throw into) gear, to engage; (cf. embragar, kuplar). Ex. Un roto ingranas (kun) altra, kande ol movas (turnigas) ica per sua propra movo, per denti qui pulsas la denti di l'altra; III-87. — FIS

ingredient-o: ingredient. — DEFIS

inguin-o: (anat.) groin; -ala: inguinal. — EFIS

inhal-ar: (tr.) to inhale. — DEFIS

inher-ar (intr.) to inhere; -anta: inherent; -o, -ant-eso: (qual.) inherency. Ex.: Graveso inheras en (esas inheranta ad) materio. — DEFIS

inhib-ar: (tr.) to inhibit: to check, restrain (the activity of); (jur.) to prohibit, interdict. — DEFIS

inici-ar: (tr.) to initiate: to introduce by a first act, take the initiative in; to instruct in the rudiments or principles; to introduce into a society, club, etc., by formal rites; -(ad)o: initiating (ac); -em-eso: initiative (tendency); -ala: initial: beginning; -anto, -into, -ero: initiator, promoter; -alo: person initiated; -ar a la misterii: to initiate into the mysterios. Def.: Igar komencar, igar departar, igar debutar; III-696. Ex.: On inicias homo a doktrino. On inicias afero, entraprezo. — DEFIRS

iniciativ-ar*: (tr.) to be the first to propose, organize, or execute (ulo). — DEFIRS

injekt-ar: (tr.) to inject (a fluid or other substance into something); -izar: to inject (a person or thing with an injection); -ajo: (liquid) injection; okuli -iz-ita: (fig.) bloodshot eyes. — DEFIRS

injeni-ar: (tr.) to exercise one's wits, to set one's wits to work; to contrive (tax one's ingenuity); -oza, -ema: (of persons) ingenious, clever; -ita: (of things) ingenious; showing ingenuity; la justa konstrukto di ca mashino injeniesis da me: the right construction of this machine was contrived by me. — EFIS

injenior-o: engineer (civil, military, mining, etc.); (cf. mashin-isto). — DEFIRS

ink-o: ink; -uyo: ink-holder, -stand, -pot; -izar: to (cover with) ink; -iz-ilo: ink-pad; any inking instrument; -o-makulo: ink blot. — EFI

inkandec-ar: (intr.) to be incandescent. — EFIS

inkardin-ar: (tr., eccl.) to incardinate.

inkarnac-ar, -eskar: (intr., theol.) to be, become incarnate; -o: incarnation. — DEFIS

inkas-ar: (tr., fin. and fig.) to collect, call in, receive something which is due, chiefly commercial sense of money but (fig.) of applause, compliments, flowers, etc. (kp. IV-527) -ero, -isto: collector; -ar checko: to cash a check. — DFI

inkastr-ar: (tr., tech.) to lit in, set in, lit together; (fig.) to enshrine; to set (a stone in bezel); to set (a bone). — FIS

inklin-ar: (tr., intr., phys., mental) to incline, lean, slope; to be disposed; -o: inclination, incline, gradient, bow; -eso: inclination, favorable, disposition, proclivity (for); -ita kapo: bowed head; -anta, -ita: inclined, sloped; prone, disposed (cf. tendencanta). Ex.: Ca muro inklinas. La vinko inklinas a lia favoro. Il inklinesas a severeso. Inklino vicioza. — EFIS

inkluz-ar: (tr., (ad)en) to include, inclose, shut up (in), insert, pen in or up; -o, -eso, -ajo: including, inclosure; -anta, -iva: inclosing, inclusive; -e, -ite, -ive: inclusively; hike inkluz-ita: herewith inclosed, sent herewith; -ito: a person shut in, recluse. — DEFIRS

inkoativ-a: (gram.) inchoate. Def.: Qualifikas la vorti (generale verbi), qui signifikas ula komenco; V-279. Ex.: La sufixo -esk- esas inkoativa. — DEFIS

inkognit-a, -o: incognito; -ino: incognita. — DEFIRS

inkombr-ar: (tr.) to encumber, obstruct, block, crowd, hinder in passing. Def.: Embarasar, impedar per l'amaso de objekti. Ex.: La multa veturi inkombras la strado. V. exp.: Tablo, chambro, inkombrita, ne povas dicesar obstruktita. III-326. — EFIS

inkrust-ar: (tr.) to incrust: cover with a crust; to inlay (thin slices of fine wood, marble, etc.). — DEFIRS

inkub-o: nightmare; (imaginary demon) incubus.— DEFIS

inkubac-ar: (intr., med.) to be in a state of incubation (speaking of a disease). (N.B. not used for «to hatch»; cf. kovar). — DEFIS

inkulk-ar: (tr.) to inculcate; impress on the mind by frequent repetitions, to instil, implant (a truth, a doctrine). V. exp.: Inkulkar kredo, bona mori, esas penetrigar li profunde e dureme en la mento e kustumo; IV-136. — EFIS

inkunabl-o, -i: incunabula.— DEFIS

inkur-ar: (tr.) to submit oneself to a situation; Def.: Igar su en la kazo subisor. — F

inkurs-ar: (tr.) to make a incursion: enter into a territory with hostile intent, to raid. — EFIRS

inocent-a: innocent, guileless, artless (pri) (cf sen-kulpa). Def.: Qua tote ne konocas la malajo; IV-79. — EFIS

inokul-ar: (tr., med.) to inoculate (virus); (fig.) to propagate. — DEFIRS

inquest-ar: (tr., adminis., parl., jur.) to make inquiry (into), make inquest, inquisition, investigate; -anta judiciisto: examining magistrate; komitato di -o: committee of inquiry. V. exp.: On devas ne uzar (Quale la ??? tentesas facar) inquesto vice questiono, kande on parolas pri simpla questiono, Inquesto esas ensemblo de questioni, de explori, de serchi, qua facesas exemple (e precipue) da policisto o judikisto (qua en ta kazo nomizesas inquestito). Pro to ta vorto havas impliko judiciala, qua riskas esar neagreabla o nepolita, kande on parolas pri questiono, quan privato directas a privato; V-223. — EFIS

inquizicion-o: (hist.) inquisition. — DEFIRS

inquizitor-o: (hist.) inquisitor: an officer of the inquisition; (cf. inquestanto, -ero). — DEFIRS

insekt-o: insect; -aro: insects (collect.), vermin; -o-ocid-ivo, -ilo: insecticide; -o-manj-anta: insectivorous. — DEFIRS

insektivor-a: insectivorous. — DEFIRS

insert-ar: (tr.) to insert, put in, set in; -ajo: what is inserted; -uro: (result) insertion. — DEFIS

insidi-ar: (tr., lit. and fig.) to set a trap for, to lay snare for (ulu); -ema: (of persons) insidious, sly, crafty, wily; -oza: (of things) full of snares. — EFIS

insign-o: badge; (of a shop) sign (-board); -i, -aro: insignia. — DEFIS

insinu-ar: (tr., su, ulo, aden) to insinuate; to introduce gently, wind into, worm into; to hint, intimate, suggested indirectly; -ajo: insinuation, innuendo; -ar la fingro aden vunduro: to insinuate a finger in a wound; -ar bona sentimenti: to instil good sentiments; l'aquo -as su tra la pori: the water insinuates itself into the pores; perfida -o: a perfidious insinuation. — EFIRS

insipid-a: (lit. and fig.) insipid, tasteless (cf. sen-sapora); -ajo: a tasteless thing; (saying) platitude; III 604. — DEFIS

insist-ar: (intr.) to insist: to urge or press earnestly, to lay stress (en, pri, sur); (N.B. Not "to demand", cf postular); -anta, -ema: insistant, urgent, earnest; -e: insistently, earnestly. Def.: Perservar demandar. V. exp. On insistas en demando prego. On persistas en stando (mem pure materiala). On obstinas en volo, deziro od opiniono; II-648. — EFIS

insolent-a: insolent. V. exp.: vid impertinenta. — DEFIRS

inspekt-ar: (tr.) to inspect: examine, oversee, survey. — DEFIRS

inspir-ar: (tr.) to inspire (by divine instruction, poetic spirit, ideas); -ajo: that which inspires; -eso: inspiration (received). V. Exp. vid. entuziasmo. — DEFIS

instal-ar: (tr.) to install; induct a person into an office; (mechan.) to setup or fix in position for use or service. Ex.: Instalar episkopo. Instalo di mashino. — DEFIS

instanc-o: (jur.) instance: process of a suit; korto di unesma -o: court of first instance. — DEFIRS

instant-o: instant, moment; -ala: instantaneous: -ale: instantly, momentarily; -al-eso: instantaneousness; -al-ajo: an instantaneous object (as in photog.); omna-instante: every instant; ca- -e: this instant. — DEFIRS

instig-ar: (tr.) to instigate, incite (ulu, ad; ordinarily in bad sense); -ata da: instigate by (ulu); (cf. incitar). Def.: Penar por persuadar ulu facar ulo; III-417. Ex. Vu instigis il facar ta krimino. Instigar ulu laborar, (a) revolto. Instigo di la diablo. — EFIS

instil-ar: (tr.) to instil: (pharm., med.) to infuse by drops; (fig.) to infuse slowly into the mind. — DEFI

instint-o: instinct; -ala, -atra: instinctive; -e: instinctively. Def.: Impulso naturala. — DEFIRS

instituc-ar: (tr.) to institute: to establish or set up, to found; to appoint to office; -ar su: to appoint oneself; -uro: institution. Ex.: Jesu Kristo dicesas institucir la sep sakramenti Instituco (E. appointment) di judiciisto.— DEFIRS

institut-o: institute: a literary, scientific or philosophical society. — DEFIRS

instrucion-o: (practical) instruction(s), direction(s) (how to do or use something). V. exp.: vid. sav-igar. — DEFIRS

instrukt-ar: (tr.) to instruct: to impart knowledge to; to teach, educate; -(ad) o: instruction (given); -eso: instruction (received); -iva: instructive; -ar rejido guvernar: to teach a prince how to govern; -ar per exempli: to teach by examples. V. exp.:vid. sav-igar, edukar. — DEFIRS

instrument-o: instrument, tool, implement; -ala: instrumental: relating to i.s. (as in. i. music); conducive to some end, helpful; -alo: (Anglo-Saxon and Russian gram.) instrumental case; -izar: (music) set (ulo) to instrumental music; -izo: (music) instrumentation; (cf. orkestr-izar). — DEFIRS

insul-o: isle, island; -ano: islander. — DEFIS

insulin-o: (2001) insulin. — DEFIRS

insult-ar: (tr.) to insult: treat with abuse, insolence or contempt, by word or action, to affront, taunt, call names, abuse rail at. — DEFIS

intali-o: (engr.) intaglio. Def.: Gemo grabita kave (inverse di kameo); VI-528. — DEFI

integr-a: all parts properly united and present, whole, entire, complete, intact, integral; -a nombro, (od, integro): (arith.) integer; -eso: integrity (entirely); -e: in full, bodily. Def.: Ne-tushita, ne-lezita, havanta omna sua parti e membri; V-744. — EFIRS

integral-o: (math.), integral; -kalkulo: i. calculus; -igar: to integrate.

intelekt-ar: (tr., philos. and general) to understand, comprehend, or know (ulo) by the intellect alone (opposite of to know by sensation, feeling); -o: intellection, cognition, comprehension, intellect, intelligence (cf. kompreno, inteligent-eso); -ala: intellectual: relating to process of thought; -oza: intellectual: gifted with reasoning power; -ebla: intelligible: that can be known by intellection, opp. to sensible. Ex.: On parolas pri la mondo «intelektebla» opozata a la mondo «sentebla». Do on devas dicar «intelektebla» (qua povas esar objecto dil intelekto). intelekto esas l'ago intelektar; IV-231-2. V.exp.: Me intelektas problemo. Me komprenas vua sentiveso pri la morto di vua patro; -uel-o: intellectual (person). — DEFIRS

inteligent-a: intelligent: mentally acute; -eso: intelligence (cf. intelekto, konoco, savo). Ex.: Il esas tre inteligenta employato. Puero di mikra inteligenteso. — DEFIRS

intenc-ar: (tr.) to intend, purpose; have in view, in mind (cf projectar); -o: intent(ion), purpose; -ala: intentional; -ata, -ita: intended; -anta: intentioned, disposed (bone o male); -e, kun -o: intentionally, on purpose. Ex.: Me facis lo kun bona intenco. Il esas homo bone intencanta. me intencas irar morge. — EFIS

intendanc-o*: (milit.) commissariat. — DFIRS

intendant-o: intendant: one who has charge of some public business: a superintendent (of public building), colonial or district administrator or treasurer, or the like; as intendant of marine; intendant of finance; -eso, -evo, -io: intendancy. — DEFIRS

intens-a: intense; -eso: intensity; -igar: to intensify; -ig-anta, -iva: intensifying, intensive. Ant.: febla. — DEFIRS

inter: (prep.) between, betwixt (of time and space); among (of persons and things; cf. meze); inter nokto e matino: between night and morning; inter la nacioni: among the nations; Sirius esas la maxim lumoza inter la fixa steli: Sirius is the brightest among the fixed stars (denoting reciprocity, exchange, division among): la pueri ludas inter su: the children play with each other: li kambiis sua redingoti inter su: they exchanged coats (between themselves); la havajo esis dividata inter la parenti: the property was divided among the relations (cf. Talmey's Text Book, p.87, 110). — EFRS

inter-akt-o: interlude, act between acts; interval between acts.

intercept-ar: (tr.) to intercept. V. exp.: On interceptas letri, telegrafaji, telefonaji. Per to on ne necese haltigas oli nek impedas atingar la skopo; III-604. — EFIS

interces-ar: (intr.) to intercede, plead (with or for); put in a good word (for). — DEFIRS

interdikt-ar: (tr.) to interdict, prohibit, forbid; -ata, -ita; forbidden, illicit. — DEFIRS

interes-ar: (tr.) to interest (ulu, pri, ad): (indicates excitement of feeling accompanying special attention to some object); -ar su, havar -o: to i. one-self, have an i. in, be concerned; -o en (o, pri) botaniko: i. in botany; questioni di -o: questions of interest; -anta, -oza, -iva: interesting (book, news, person, etc.); ca libro esas ne-interesanta: this book is without interest (cf. interesto). — DEFIRS

interest-o: interest (objective interest, pecuniary, financial); -oza: advantageous, profitable; -o kompoz-ita: compound interest; -ifar: to bear i.; sen -a: disinterested; (cf. interesar) (Note: It is necessary to distinguish clearly between interesar and interesto. Intereso indicates, loosely, lively sympathy or curiosity; a book or a subject interesas. Interesto relates to proprietary right or share; it is used in such sentences as: «it is to my interest to do it» «to promote one's interest»; «money bears interest»; etc. — DEFIRS

inter-event-ar: (intr., of things, events) to happen, occur (in between); (cf. inter-venar); plura decidi (inter-)eventis en la proceso: several judgments were pronounced in the course of the lawsuit; multa kozi (inter)eventis dum la negociado: many things happened during the negotiations.

interfac-o*: interface: the place or area at which different things meet and communicate with or affect each other; an area or system through which one machine is connected to another machine (vid. interkomuniko*). interfer-ar: (intr., physical), to interfere (kun). (N.B. for «to interfere», when speaking of persons; cf. mixar su, inter-venar). — DEFIRS

inter-ferdek-o: a deck between, lower deck, space between decks.

inter-foli-izar: to interleave.

interim-o: interim: time intervening; -e: for the time being, ad interim, in the mean time; -ala presidentato: provisional, temporary president. — DEFIS

inter-jac-ar: (intr.) to lie in between; -anta: interjacent.

interjecion-o: (gram.) interjection. — DEFIS

inter-komun-a: belonging in common to several persons; as, havajo -a: common property.

interkomunik-o*: interface: the place or area at which different things meet and communicate with or affect each other; an area or system through which one machine is connected to another machine (vid. interfaco*).

inter-konsent-o: mutual agreement, understanding (F. entente); -o kordi-ala: entente coardiale.

inter-konsult-ar: (tr., intr.) to hold a consultation, deliberate together.

inter-kost-a: (anat.) intercostal.

inter-kuranta (-venanta): intercurrent: intervening, coming in between.

inter-line-o: a line between; space between (lines); -izar: to interline; (print.) to lead; -a: interlinear; -ajo, -iz-o, -iz-uro: interlineation.

intermez-o: (theat.) intermezzo, interlude. — DEFIRS

inter-milit-ant-a, -o: belligerent.

intermit-ar: (intr.) to be intermittent: cease at intervals. — DEFIS

intern-a: internal, inward, interior; -ajo: the interior, inside; -e: inwardly, internally, -eso: inwardness; -(ul)o: (fig.) boarder (in school); interne (in hospital); -erio: (fig.) boarding or private school; ministro di l'interna aferi: Minister of the Interior, Home Secretary; il esas en l'internajo di la domo: he is inside the house; de interne ad extere: form within outwards, inside out. — DEFIRS

inter-nacion-a: international; -eso, -is-mo: internationality, internationalism (doctrine); -igar: to internationalize.

Internacional-o: an organized group or labor union that transcends national limits; the union song "The Internationale".

inter-nunci-o: (papal) internuncio.

interogativ-a, -o: (gram.) interrogative. Def.: La questionala partikli (adjectivi, pronomi ed adverbi); V-279. — DEFIS

inter-ost-a: (anat.) interosseal, interosseous.

inter-parlo-ar: (intr.) to converse.

interpel-ar: (tr., parl.) to interpellate: to question formally for explanation, put a question to. — DEFIRS

interpol-ar: (tr.) to interpolate: to insert, as a spurious of foreign word or passage; (math.) to interpolate; -ajo: interpolation (word, passage), spurious passage. — DEFIRS

inter-pozar: (tr.) to place (ulo) between, insert, interpose, intercalate (a day); (cf. inter-venar, mediacar).

interpret-ar: (tr.) to interpret; to explain what is obscure and ambiguous in a writing, construe (cf. tradukar); mis--ar: to misinterpret, misconstrue. — DEFIS

inter-prim-a (nombri): prime to one another: numbers without any common divisor.

inter-regn-o: interregnum.

interret-o*: internet.

inter-rim-ifar: to rhyme together.

inter-rupt-ar: (tr.) to interrupt: destroy the continuity of, break off, stop.

inter-sek-ar: (tr.) to intersect.

inter-sequ-ar (su): to follow, succeed each other; -o: sequence; -e: consecutively, in succession; -anta: consecutive, successive.

inter-shok-ar: to strike against one another, to run foul of each other.

inter-spac-o: interspace, a space between places, intermediate distance.

interstic-o: interstice. — EFIS

inter-temp-o: meantime, interval, lapse (of time); -e: meanwhile (cf. dume).

inter-tropik-a: intertropical: situated between the tropics.

interval-o: (esp. mus.) interval (cf. inter-tempo, inter-spaco). — DEFIRS

inter-ven-ar: (intr., of persons) to intervene, interpose, interfere (cf. inter-eventar); -o: intervention, interference, interposition; des-, ne-inter-veno: non-intervention. Ex.: Intervenar en konflikto, en disputo. Armizita interveno.

inter-vid-o: mutual sight or view; (fig.) interview: meeting for conference (cf. interviuvo).

interviuv-ar: (tr.) to interview (ulu) — DEF

intestat-a: intestate; -a hered-anto: (jur.) an intestate heir(ess). Def.: Ta qua heredis sen testamento. V-279. — DEFI

intestin-o: intestine, gut; -ala: intestinal; -i: intestines, entrails, bowels: -o tenua: small intestine. — EFIRS

intim-a: intimate: inmost, inward; near, close; close in friendship, familiar, bosom; -(ul)o: i. person, close friend; -eso: intimacy, -ajo: inward part, heart (of a subject); la naturo intima di kozi: the inward nature of things; la sentimenti maxim intima: the most secret sentiments; relati intima: close relations: amiko intima: intimate friend. — DEFIRS

inton-ar: (tr., mus.) to intone; -(ad)o: (mus. and voice expression) intonation (cf. modulaco). — DEFIS

intoxik-ar: (tr.) to poison, drug, envenom (N.B. not E. to intoxicate with liquor; cf. ebri-igar); V. exp.: Intoxikar expresas ideo plu general kam venen-izar. On povas drinkar veneno sen esar intoxikita; IV-517. — DEFIRS

intracelul-a: (biol.) intracellular.

intrados-o: (arch.) intrados: interior curve of an arch. — DEFS

intramolekul-a: (biol.) intramolecular.

intren-ar*: (tr.) Def.: La "shutro" centrala di la triptiko "komencar", "intrenar", "finar," uzata kande "-as", "-is", "-os" ne esas sat preciza.

intrig-ar: (intr.) to intrigue: to contrive by secret artifice; make plots; scheme; -izar: to complicate, entangle by intrigues. — DEFIRS

intrik-ar: (tr.) to tangle, entangle, embroil, implicate (ulu, en ulo); to make (ulo) intricate. — EI

intrinsek-a: intrinsic. Ant.: extrinseka. — EFIS

introdukt-ar: (tr.) to introduce (ulu), to bring (ulo) into notice; to preface (cf. en-duktar, prizent-ar); -o, -uro: introducing, introduction, preamble (cf. prefaco); -ala: preliminary. Ex.: Me volas introduktar il che vu. Donar introdukto-letro ad ulu. Ca libro servos kom introdukto a la temo. III-71. — DEFIRS

«introitus»: (R. C. ch.) introit.

intruz-ar: (tr.) to intrude, obtrude (su en ulo); to interfere, meddle; (geol.) to enter, or cause to enter, by force. — EFIS

intuic-ar: (tr., phil.) to intuit.

intumec-ar: (intr.) to intumesce: to swell. — DEFIS

intusucepcion-o: (med., biol.) intussusception. — DEFIS

inul-o: (bot.) elecampane (Inula). — IFL

inulin-o: (chem.) inulin.

inund-ar: (tr., pr. and fig.) to inundate, overflow, flood, swamp. Ex.: Nilo inundas la planajo. La inundo di la Romana imperio da la barbari. — EFIS

invad-ar: (tr.) to invade. Ex.: La armeo invadis la teritorio di sua enemiki. Mala herbi invadas la gardeno. — DEFIS

invagin-ar: (tr.) to invaginate. — DEFIS

invalid-a: invalid: infirm, disabled; of no legal force, void, null; -(ul)o: an i.; (milit.) a soldier disabled for active service; -erio: establ. for disabled persons. — DEFIRS

invektiv-ar: (tr.) to inveigh against; -o: invective. V.exp.: Invektivo esas nek reprimando, nek insulto, ma atako per parolo; ol povas esar decanta ed eloquenta. La Quousque tandem esas invektivo da Cicero a Catilina; IV-513-514. — DEFIS

invent-ar: (tr.) to invent: find out something new (a process, a machine); -uro: an invention. — EFIRS

inventari-ar: (tr.) to take an inventory of : to inventory; (com.) to take stock (of). — DEFIRS

invers-a: inverse, inverted; -o, -ajo: the reverse, the contrary, opposite (cf. reverso); -igar: to invert, reverse, to put upside down; -igo, -igeso: inversion; -e: vice-versa; raporto inversa: inverse ratio; -igar la natural ordino dil vorti en frazo; to invert the natural order of words in a sentence. — EFIS

invertaz-o: (chem.) invertase.

invest-ar: (tr.) to invest (with authority, office; cf kolokar). Def.: Provizar per ofico o titulo; IV-167. — DEFIS

inveter-a: ingrained, inveterate. — F

invit-ar: (tr.) to invite; ask to go to some place or to do something; V. exp.: Invito esas polita prego por asistar kunveno, repasto, balo, festo, e.c.; III-417. — EFIS

invok-ar: (tr.) to invoke. — EF

involucion-o: (math.) involution; (bot.) state of being rolled spirally inward. — DEFIRS

involukr-o: (bot.) involucre. — DEFIS

inyam-o: (plant and rhizome) yam (genus: Dioscorea). — DEFIRS

iod-o: (chem.) iodine; -ido: iodide; -oformo: iodoform. — DEFIRS

ion-o: (phys.) ion. — DEF

ioni-o*: (chem.) ionium. — DEFIRS

Ioni-ala: Ionic: relating to Ionia; -ano: an Ionian.

ionik-a: (arch.) ionic. — DEFIS

ionosfer-o*: ionosphere: later of the atmosphere.

«iota»: (Gr. alphabet) iota; (fig.) jot, little.

ips-a: self (-same); -e: (by) self; -o: the same thing. Note: Ispa is ordinarily used in connection with a personal pronoun; as: me ipsa: I myself; li ipsa: they themselves; but can be used with substantives; as: la rejo ipsa: the king himself; la kozo ipsa: the thing itself; de la botelo ipsa: from the selfsame bottle; it sould always be placed next to the word it modifies. Ex: La mastro inspektis ipse la domo. La mastro ipsa inspektis la domo. Il ipsa volas parolar kun me. Il pozas su ipsa avan la pordo. — L

-ir: (gram.) past tense infinitive ending.

ir-ar: (intr., tr.) to go, be going; -o: going; passage. Note: Irar is often compounded, as: ek-irar, mis-irar, ped-irar, etc. It sometimes takes a direct object, as: li iris penigiva voyo: they went a wearisome way. Def.: Diplasar su de un loko ad altra per irga moyeno; IV-464. Ex.: On iras de Paris a London, parte per fervoyo, parte per navo. — FIS

irac-ar: (intr.) to be angry, cross (kontre); -o: anger, irritation, ire, wraith; -anta, -ema, -oza: angry, irascible, choleric, testy, cross, peevish; -igar: to anger, incense, exasperate, irritate (ulu); -eskar: to become angry, get in a temper; -emeso: irascibility; -ig-ania, -iva: exasperating, vexing. — EFIS

«irade»: irade: decree of Sultan.

iradi-ar: (tr.) to irradiate. Def.: Optikal fenomeno per qua la parti plu lumoza o lumizita invadas la parti min lumoza e restriktas oli; IV-200. — DEFIS

irg-a: any (whatever): relating to something or someone indefinite (cf. ula); -o: anything (whatever); -u: anyone (no matter who); -u qua (od, igre qua): whoever, whosoever; -e quale, irge maniere: anyhow, at any rate, no matter how; -a-loke, irg-ube: anywhere (whatever), wherever; -e-kande: no matter when, whenever; -a-tempe: at any time; -e-quant-a, -e: in any quantity; irga qua motivin vu havas por plendar: whatever reasons you may have to complain; irge quanto kurajon il manifestis: however much courage he manifested; irge quala esos la vetero: no matter what the weather is; irge quanta pekunion il havas: no matter how much money he has; irge quan lu renkontris: whomsover he met: irge quante mikra la donacajo: however small the gift. — D

irid-o: (bot.) iris, orris, (genus: Iris). — DEFIRSL

iridi-o: (chem.) iridium.

irigac-ar: (tr., agri.) to irrigate. V. exp.: Irigaco esas brancho di agrokultivado. Ol aquizas tota agri, farmi, distrikti per fluigar aquo de riveri, lagi, e.c. en artificala kanali a la kultivoloko: IV-459-460. — EFI

iris-o: (anat.) iris; (fig.) colors of the rainbow (cf ciel-arko); -izar: to give the hues of the rainbow, become iridescent; -oza, -iz-ita: iridescent. — DEFIRS

irisit-o: (med.) iritis.

irit-ar: (tr. physiol.) to irritate, inflame, fret; (fig.) to annoy, exasperate.— DEFIS

ironi-o: irony; -a, -ala, -oza, -ema: ironic(al). — DEFIRS

irupt-ar: (intr.) to invade (with great power, with large numbers); to burst (in), rush in (as enemies, or like enemies). Ex. : La barbari iruptis en la Romana imperio. Ta turbo iruptis (E. burst) en la chambro. — EFIS

iskemi-o: (2001) ischemia, ischaemia. — DEFIRS

iskion-o: (anat.) ischium.

islam-o: Islam: the Mohammedan world, (cf Mohamed-ismo).

-ism-: (suffix) signifying doctrine, party, system. Ex.: imperial-ism-o: imperialism, Katolik-ism-o: Catholicism.

-ist-: (suffix) signifying a person engaged permanently in some occupation, profession. Ex.: pord-isto: doorman, kant-isto: professional singer.

istm-o: (geog.) isthmus. — DEFIS

(i)t-a: that, those (or "this, these" where the nearness or remoteness of an object pointed out is irrelevant; -o (obj. ton): that (thing); -i: those; ta soldato e lua kamarado tre konkordas pri omno: that (or this) soldier and his comrade much agree about everything; ta qua: he, she, who; to quo: that which; ti qui: those who: ta qua volas vivar felice, devas esar vertuoza: who would live (he, she, who will live) happily should be virtuous; to quo plezas a vu maxim ofte plezas a me: what (that which) pleases you generally (most often) pleases me; after two nouns already used in pointing out objects, ita refers to the first (cf. ca); ka tu preferas ica od ita kavalo ? Ita esas plu forta, ma ica plu bela; do you prefer this or that horse? that (one) is (the) stronger, but this (one) is (the) more handsome; nek ica ita flori plezas a me: neither these nor those flowers please me; when it is desirable to indicate the gender of the object pointed at, the forms: ilta, ilti; elta, elti; olta, olti are used; ilti qui konocas me: those (masc.) who are acquainted with me; elta quan me amas ne amas me: she whom i love does not love me; kande olca (ol) esis trovita: when it had been found; where euphony permits the «i» is omitted; as: ta, to, ti.

item-o*: item (in a list, budget, calculation, etc.).

iter-ar: (tr.) to iterate, reiterate, repeat; to do two or more times what one has already done before (N.B. refers to all acts, not merely words); -ala: (manner) iterative, repetitious; -e: again anew, once more, over again. V. exp. vid. repetar. — EFIS

itinerari-o: itinerary, route. Def. Voyo sequanta, sequita o sequota da ula voyajero; V-280. — DEFIS

-iv-: (suffix) with verbal roots, signifying capable of, able to. Ex.: instrukt-iva: instructive, konvink-iva: convincing.

-ivor-: (2001) (suffix) sufixo qua signifikas "qua nutras su ye...". — DEFIRS

ivor-o, -a, -ala: ivory. — EFI

-iz-: (suffix) with substantive roots, signifying to cover with, provide with, ornament with: arm-izar: to arm, kron-izar: to crown.

izabel-a: isabel(la) colored: a brownish yellow or light buff color; (of horses) light-bay. — DEFIS

izobar-o: (phys., geog.) isobar. — DEFIRS

izocel-a: (geom.) isosceles (triangle, etc.). — EFIS

izodinam-a: (phys.) isodynamic. — DEFIS

izogam-a: (biol.) isogamous. — DEFIS

izogon-a: (geom.) isogonic. — DEFIS

izografik-o*: isography: the imititation of handwriting. — DEFIS

izoklin-a: (geol., magnetism) isoclin-al, -ic; -o: isoclinic line. — DEFIS

izokron-a: (phys.) isochron-al, -ous. — DEFIS

izol-ar: (tr.) to isolate: place apart from its environment; (elec., etc.) to insulate; -ilo, -ivo: (phys.) insulator; -ita: isolated, alone; insulated. Ex.: La domo esas en izolita loko en foresto. Egoismo izolas homo. Metal-filo izolila. — DEFIRS

izomer-a: (chem.) isomeric. — DEFIS

izometr-a: (geom.) isometric. — DEFIRS

izomorf-a: (chem.) isomorphic. — DEFIRS

izoperimetr-a: (geom.) isoperimetrical. — DEFIRS

izopler-o: isoplere. — DEFIRS

izoterm-o: (phys.) isotherm. — DEFIRS

izotonik-a: (biol.) isotonic.

izotop-a: (chem.) isotopic; -o: isotope.

izotrop-a: isotropic.

Izrael-id-o: Israelite. V.exp.: On povas divenar Judo (prozelito) exemple adoptante la religio dil Judi, ma on ne povas divenar Izraelido, nam, la Izraelida stat ne plus existas, cesinte per la politikal destruckto di Ierusalem; V-429.— DEFIRS